UGC NET Syllabus - Commerce (Sub Code: 08)

UGC NET SYLLABUS (Updated) - Applicable from June 2019 Onwards

(Subject: Commerce Code No. : 08)

 

Unit 1: Business Environment and International Business

Unit 2: Accounting and Auditing

Unit 3: Business Economics

Unit 4: Business Finance

Unit 5: Business Statistics and Research Methods

Unit 6: Business Management and Human Resource Management

Unit 7: Banking and Financial Institutions

Unit 8: Marketing Management

Unit 9: Legal Aspects of Business

Unit 10: Income-tax and Corporate Tax Planning

 

Unit 1: Business Environment and International Business

 Concepts and elements of business environment: Economic environment- Economic systems, Economic policies(Monetary and fiscal policies); Political environment- Role of government in business; Legal environment- Consumer Protection Act, FEMA; Socio-cultural factors and their influence on business; Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

 Scope and importance of international business; Globalization and its drivers; Modes of entry into international business

 Theories of international trade; Government intervention in international trade; Tariff and non-tariff barriers; India’s foreign trade policy

 Foreign direct investment (FDI) and Foreign portfolio investment (FPI); Types of FDI, Costs and benefits of FDI to home and host countries; Trends in FDI; India’s FDI policy

 Balance of payments (BOP): Importance and components of BOP

 Regional Economic Integration: Levels of Regional Economic Integration; Trade creation and diversion effects; Regional Trade Agreements: European Union (EU), ASEAN, SAARC, NAFTA

 International Economic institutions: IMF, World Bank, UNCTAD

 World Trade Organisation (WTO): Functions and objectives of WTO; Agriculture Agreement; GATS; TRIPS; TRIMS

 

Unit 2: Accounting and Auditing

 Basic accounting principles; concepts and postulates

 Partnership Accounts: Admission, Retirement, Death, Dissolution and Insolvency of partnership firms

 Corporate Accounting: Issue, forfeiture and reissue of shares; Liquidation of companies; Acquisition, merger, amalgamation and reconstruction of companies

 Holding company accounts

 Cost and Management Accounting: Marginal costing and Break-even analysis; Standard costing; Budgetary control; Process costing; Activity Based Costing (ABC); Costing for decision-making; Life cycle costing, Target costing, Kaizen costing and JIT

 Financial Statements Analysis: Ratio analysis; Funds flow Analysis; Cash flow analysis

 Human Resources Accounting; Inflation Accounting; Environmental Accounting

 Indian Accounting Standards and IFRS

 Auditing: Independent financial audit; Vouching; Verification ad valuation of assets and liabilities; Audit of financial statements and audit report; Cost audit

 Recent Trends in Auditing: Management audit; Energy audit; Environment audit; Systems audit; Safety audit

 

Unit 3: Business Economics

 Meaning and scope of business economics

 Objectives of business firms

 Demand analysis: Law of demand; Elasticity of demand and its measurement; Relationship between AR and MR

 Consumer behavior: Utility analysis; Indifference curve analysis

 Law of Variable Proportions: Law of Returns to Scale

 Theory of cost: Short-run and long-run cost curves

 Price determination under different market forms: Perfect competition; Monopolistic competition; Oligopoly- Price leadership model; Monopoly; Price discrimination

 Pricing strategies: Price skimming; Price penetration; Peak load pricing

 

Unit 4: Business Finance

 Scope and sources of finance; Lease financing

 Cost of capital and time value of money

 Capital structure

 Capital budgeting decisions: Conventional and scientific techniques of capital budgeting analysis

 Working capital management; Dividend decision: Theories and policies

 Risk and return analysis; Asset securitization

 International monetary system

 Foreign exchange market; Exchange rate risk and hedging techniques

 International financial markets and instruments: Euro currency; GDRs; ADRs

 International arbitrage; Multinational capital budgeting

 

Unit 5: Business Statistics and Research Methods

 Measures of central tendency

 Measures of dispersion

 Measures of skewness

 Correlation and regression of two variables

 Probability: Approaches to probability; Bayes’ theorem

 Probability distributions: Binomial, poisson and normal distributions

 Research: Concept and types; Research designs

 Data: Collection and classification of data

 Sampling and estimation: Concepts; Methods of sampling - probability and non-probability methods; Sampling distribution; Central limit theorem; Standard error; Statistical estimation

 Hypothesis testing: z-test; t-test; ANOVA; Chi–square test; Mann-Whitney test (U-test); Kruskal-Wallis test (H-test); Rank correlation test

 Report writing

 

Unit 6: Business Management and Human Resource Management

 Principles and functions of management

 Organization structure: Formal and informal organizations; Span of control

 Responsibility and authority: Delegation of authority and decentralization

 Motivation and leadership: Concept and theories

 Corporate governance and business ethics

 Human resource management: Concept, role and functions of HRM; Human resource planning; Recruitment and selection; Training and development; Succession planning

 Compensation management: Job evaluation; Incentives and fringe benefits

 Performance appraisal including 360 degree performance appraisal

 Collective bargaining and workers’ participation in management

 Personality: Perception; Attitudes; Emotions; Group dynamics; Power and politics; Conflict and negotiation; Stress management

 Organizational Culture: Organizational development and organizational change

 

Unit 7: Banking and Financial Institutions

 Overview of Indian financial system

 Types of banks: Commercial banks; Regional Rural Banks (RRBs); Foreign banks; Cooperative banks

 Reserve Bank of India: Functions; Role and monetary policy management

 Banking sector reforms in India: Basel norms; Risk management; NPA management

 Financial markets: Money market; Capital market; Government securities market

 Financial Institutions: Development Finance Institutions (DFIs); Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs); Mutual Funds; Pension Funds

 Financial Regulators in India

 Financial sector reforms including financial inclusion

 Digitisation of banking and other financial services: Internet banking; mobile banking; Digital payments systems

 Insurance: Types of insurance- Life and Non-life insurance; Risk classification and management; Factors limiting the insurability of risk; Re-insurance; Regulatory framework of insurance- IRDA and its role

 

Unit 8: Marketing Management

 Marketing: Concept and approaches; Marketing channels; Marketing mix; Strategic marketing planning; Market segmentation, targeting and positioning

 Product decisions: Concept; Product line; Product mix decisions; Product life cycle; New product development

 Pricing decisions: Factors affecting price determination; Pricing policies and strategies

 Promotion decisions: Role of promotion in marketing; Promotion methods - Advertising; Personal selling; Publicity; Sales promotion tools and techniques; Promotion mix

 Distribution decisions: Channels of distribution; Channel management

 Consumer Behaviour; Consumer buying process; factors influencing consumer buying decisions

 Service marketing

 Trends in marketing: Social marketing; Online marketing; Green marketing; Direct marketing; Rural marketing; CRM

 Logistics management

 

Unit 9: Legal Aspects of Business

 Indian Contract Act, 1872: Elements of a valid contract; Capacity of parties; Free consent; Discharge of a contract; Breach of contract and remedies against breach; Quasi contracts;

 Special contracts: Contracts of indemnity and guarantee; contracts of bailment and pledge; Contracts of agency

 Sale of Goods Act, 1930: Sale and agreement to sell; Doctrine of Caveat Emptor; Rights of unpaid seller and rights of buyer

 Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881: Types of negotiable instruments; Negotiation and assignment; Dishonour and discharge of negotiable instruments

 The Companies Act, 2013: Nature and kinds of companies; Company formation; Management, meetings and winding up of a joint stock company

 Limited Liability Partnership: Structure and procedure of formation of LLP in India

 The Competition Act, 2002: Objectives and main provisions

 The Information Technology Act, 2000: Objectives and main provisions; Cyber crimes and penalties

 The RTI Act, 2005: Objectives and main provisions

 Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) : Patents, trademarks and copyrights; Emerging issues in intellectual property

 Goods and Services Tax (GST): Objectives and main provisions; Benefits of GST; Implementation mechanism; Working of dual GST

 

Unit 10: Income-tax and Corporate Tax Planning

 Income-tax: Basic concepts; Residential status and tax incidence; Exempted incomes; Agricultural income; Computation of taxable income under various heads; Deductions from Gross total income; Assessment of Individuals; Clubbing of incomes

 International Taxation: Double taxation and its avoidance mechanism; Transfer pricing

 Corporate Tax Planning: Concepts and significance of corporate tax planning; Tax avoidance versus tax evasion; Techniques of corporate tax planning; Tax considerations in specific business situations: Make or buy decisions; Own or lease an asset; Retain; Renewal or replacement of asset; Shut down or continue operations

 Deduction and collection of tax at source; Advance payment of tax; E-filing of income-tax returns