UGC NET SYLLABUS (Updated) - Applicable from June 2019 Onwards
Subject: Yoga (Code No. : 100)
1. Fundamentals of Yoga: History and Various Schools of Yoga
2. Yoga Texts – I : Principal Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita and Yoga Vasishtha,
3. Yoga Texts – II : Yoga Upanishads
4. Patanjal Yoga Sutra
5. Hatha Yoga Texts
6. Allied Sciences: General Psychology, Human Biology, Diet & Nutrition
7. Yoga and Health
8. Therapeutic Yoga
9. Applications of Yoga
10. Practical Yoga – Shatkarma, Asana, Pranayama, Mudra, Bandha, Dhyana, Surya Namaskara
Fundamentals of Yoga: History and Various Schools of Yoga
History and Development of Yoga; Meaning & Definitions, Misconceptions, Aim and Objectives of Yoga.
Introduction to Vedas, Upanishads and Prasthanatrayee; Concept of Purushartha Chatushtaya
Basic concepts of Shad-darshanas- Epistemology, Metaphysics, Ethics and Liberation with special emphasis to Samkhya, Yoga and Vedanta Darshana.
Introduction to Epics and Smriti- yoga in Ramayana (Aranyakand), Mahabharata (Shantiparva) and Yajnavalkya Smriti
Brief introduction and yogic contribution of Maharshi Patanjali and Guru Gorakshanath Traditions.
Yoga in Narada Bhaktisutra and Yoga in the Literature of Saints- Kabirdas, Tulasidas and Surdas.
Yoga in Modern Times: Yogic Traditions of Swami Vivekananda, Shri Aurobindo; Maharshi Ramana and Maharshi Dayanand Saraswati
Yoga in Contemporary Times: Brief Introduction of Sri Shyamacharan Lahidi ,Sri T. Krishnamacharya, Swami Shivanada Saraswati, Swami Rama of Himalayas, Maharshi Mahesh Yogi, Pt. Sri Ram Sharma Acharya and their contribution for the development and promotion of Yoga.
Introduction to Jnanayoga, Bhaktiyoga, Karmayoga, Rajayoga, Hathayoga and Mantra Yoga
Elements of Yoga in Jainism and Buddhism.
Yogic Texts- I: Principal Upanishads, BhagavadGita, Yoga Vasishtha
Brief Introduction of Ten Principal Upanishads.
Ishavasyopanishad:Concept of Karmanishta; Concept of Vidya and Avidya; Knowledge of Brahman; Atma Bhava.
KenaUpanishad: Self and the Mind; Intuitive realization of the truth; Moral of Yaksha Upakhyana.
KathaUpanishad: Definition of Yoga; Nature of Soul; Importance of Self Realization.
Prashna Upanishad: Concept of Prana and rayi (creation); Panchapranas; The six main questions;
Mundaka Upanishad: Two approaches to Brahma- Vidya- Para and Apara; The greatness of Brahmavidya; Worthlessness of Selfish-karma; Tapas and Gurubhakti; The origin of creation, the ultimate aim of Meditation- Brahmanubhuti.
Mandukya Upanishad: Four States of Consciousness and their relation to syllables in Omkara.
Aitareya Upanishad: Concept of Atma, Universe and Brahman.
Taittiriya Upanishad: Concept of Pancha Kosha; Summary of Shiksha Valli, AnandaValli, Bhriguvalli.
Chhandogya Upanishad: Om (udgitha) Meditation; Shandilyavidya.
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad: Concept of Atman and Jnana Yoga; Union of Atman and Paramatman
General Introduction to Bhagavad Gita, Definitions of Yoga, their relevance & Scope; Essentials of Bhagavad Gita - meanings of the terms Atmaswarupa, Stithaprajna, Sankhya Yoga (Chpt.II), Karma Yoga (Chpt.III ), Samnyasa Yoga and Karma Swarupa (Sakama and Nishkama) Samnyasa, Dhyana Yogas (Chpt. VI); Types of Bhakta(Chpt. VII) Nature of Bhakti (Chpt.XII), Means and End of Bhakti-Yoga; The Trigunas and nature of Prakriti; Three Kinds of Faith. Food for Yoga-Sadhaka, Classification of food (Chpt.XIV & XVII) Daivasura-Sampad-Vibhaga Yoga (Chpt.XVI);Moksa-SamnyasaYoga (Chpt. XVIII)
Salient features of Yoga Vashitha, Concept of Adhis and Vyadhis; Psychosomatic Ailments; The four Dwarpaals to Freedom; How Sukha is attained in the Highest State of Bliss; Practices to overcome the Impediments of Yoga; Development of Satvaguna; Eightlimbs of Meditation; Jnana Saptabhumika.
Yogic texts- II: Yoga Upanishads:
Swetaswataropanishad: (Chapter II) Techniques and Importance of Dhyanyoga, suitable place for Dhyana, sequence of pranayama & its importance, Prior symptoms of Yogasiddhis, Importance of Yogasiddhis , Tattvajna, (ChapterVI) Nature of God, techniques for Realization, Attainment of liberation.
Yogakundali Upanishad: Methods of Pranayama Siddhi, Types of Pranayama, means of Self -realization.
Yogachudamadi Upanishad: The description of the six limbs of yoga, their results and sequence
Trishikhibrahmanopanishad: description of Ashtangayoga, Karmayoga and Jnanayoga.
Yogatattva Upnishad: Mantrayoga, Layayoga, Hathyoga, Rajayoga and their stages, diet and Dincharya, primary symptoms of yoga siddhis and precautions.
Dhyanbindoopanishad: importance of Dhyanayoga, Nature of Pranav, Techniques of Pranav meditation, Shadangyoga, Atmadarshan through Nadanusandhan.
Nadabindoopanishad: Hansavidya : description of various limbs of Omkar, 12 matras of omkar and its results of their application with Pranas, Types of nadas, nature of nadanusandhan sadhana, state of Manolaya.
Yogarajopnishad: Mantrayoga, Layayoga, Hathayoga, Rajayoga, nine chakras, procedures of Dhyana and its results.
Patanjala Yoga Sutra:
SAMADHI PAADA : Yoga, meaning & Nature of yoga; Concept of Chitta, Chitta-Bhumis, Chitta-Vrittis, Chitta-Vrittinirodhopaya, Abhyasa and Vairagya as the tools, Concept of Bhavapratyaya & Upaypratayaya, Sadhan Panchak, Chitta-Vikshepas (Antaraya), Ektattva Abhyasa,Chitta-prasadanam. Types and nature of Samadhi: Adhyatmaprasada and Ritambharaprajna; Samprajnata, Asamprajnata, Sabeeja & Nirbeeja Samadhi, Difference between Samapattis and Samadhi; Concept of Ishwara and attributes of Ishwara, Process of Ishwarapranidhana.
SADHANA PAADA: Concept of Kriya Yoga , theory of Kleshas ; Concept of Karmashaya and Karmvipaka, Nature of dhukha, Concept of Chaturvyuhavada, Drishyanirupanam,
Drasthanirupanam, Prakriti-Purusha Samyoga; Brief Introduction to Ashtanga Yoga; Yama- Niyama; Concept of Vitarka & Mahavrata; Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara and their siddhis.
VIBHUTI PAADA: Introduction of Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi, Nature of Sanyama; Concept of Chitta samskara, Parinamatraya and vibhutis.
KAIVALYA PAADA: Five means of Siddhis, concept of Nirman Chitta, Importance of siddhis achieved through Samadhi, Four types of Karmas; Concept of Vasana; Dharmamegh Samadhi and its result, Viveka Khyati Nirupanam, Kaivalya Nirvachana.
Hatha Yoga texts
• Introduction to Hatha Yoga and Hatha Yoga Texts. Yoga Beeja, Goraksha Samhita, Vashishtha Samhita, Shiva Samhita, Siddhasiddhantapaddhati, Hatha Pradeepika, Gheranda Samhita and Hatha Ratnavali. Aim & objectives,misconceptions about Hathayoga, prerequisites of Hathayoga (dasha yama and dasha niyama),Sadhaka and Badhaka tattvas in Hathayoga; Concept of Ghata, Ghatashuddhi, Concept and importance of Shodhana kriyas in Hathayoga; Importance of Shodhana kriyas in health and disease; Concept of Matha, Mitaahara, Rules & Regulations to be followed by Hatha Yoga Sadhakas;
• Asanas in Hatha Texts: Definition, pre requisites and special features of Yoga-asana; Asanas in Hatha Pradeepika, Hatha Ratnavali, Shiv Samhita, Vasishtha Samhita,Gheranda Samhita- benefits, precautions and contra indications of different Asanas;
• Pranayama in Hatha Texts: - Concept of Prana and Pranayama; Pranayama-its phases and stages; Prerequisites of Pranayama in Hathayoga Sadhana; Pranayama in Hatha Pradeepika, Gheranda Samhita; Shiv Samhita, Vashishtha Samhita-benefits, precautions and contra indications of different Pranayama.
• Bandha, Mudra and other practices: Concept and definition of Bandha and Mudras in Hatha Pradeepika, Hatha Ratnavali and Gheranda Samhita; Shiv Samhita, Vashishtha Samhita- benefits, precautions and contra indications. Concept, definition, benefits and Techniques of Pratyahara, Dhyana in Gheranda Samhita; Concept and benefits of Nada and Nadanusandhana in Hatha Pradeepika, Four (stages) Avasthas of Nadanusandhana; Relationship between Hatha Yoga and Raja Yoga; Goal of Hatha Yoga. Relevance of Hatha Yoga in contemporary times.
● Introduction to Altered States of Consciousness
Sleep: Stages of Sleep, Sleep Disorders;
● Behavioural Psychology: Psychology as a Science of Behaviour; Psychological basis of behaviour;
●Personality: Nature and Types of Personality; Determinants of Personality: Heredity and Environment; Facets and Stages of Personality Development;
● Cognitive Psychology: Sensation, Perception, Attention, Memory, Learning :- Their definitions and types,
Mental Health; Causes and Consequences of Mental Conflicts and Frustrations; Introduction to Common mental disorders: Insomnia, Depression, Stress, Anxiety disorders
Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology
●Introduction to cell, tissue, organs and systems; Basic cell physiology-Cell- Introduction, Cell Organelles, Cell membrane, Movement of the substances and water through the cell membrane, Bioelectric potentials.
● Musculoskeletal systems: Skeleton - names of all bones, joints and muscles, cartilage, tendon and ligaments, types of bone, joints and their functions; spine, muscles and their functions; Skeletal muscles - Properties of skeletal muscles, Muscular contraction and relaxation, Neuromuscular junction, Sarcotubular system, Smooth muscle- mechanism of contraction
● Digestive and excretory system: Anatomy of digestive system, excretory system (component organs) and their functions; Gastro intestinal system- General structure of alimentary canal, Gastric secretion, Pancreatic secretion, Gastric motility-digestive peristalsis Gastrointestinal hormones.
●Renal physiology- Structure of kidney, Nephrons, Juxtra glomerular filtrate, Reabsorption, Secretion-mechanism of secretion, Concentrating and diluting mechanism of urine, Dialysis
● Nervous system and glands: Structure and properties of neurons, subdivisions of nervous system and their functions, types of glands (endocrine and exocrine glands), important endocrine and exocrine glands and types of hormones their functions.
● Sensory nervous system, Motor nervous system, Higher functions of the nervous system, Synapse, Reflexes Cerebrospinal fluid, Blood brain and blood CSF barrier
● Cardiovascular and respiratory system: Components of cardiovascular and respiratory system; functions of cardiovascular and respiratory system; Circulatory system- Functional anatomy of the heart, Properties of cardiac muscles, Conducting system of the heart, Pressure changes during cardiac cycles, Capillary circulation, Arterial and venous blood pressure; Respiratory system-Mechanism of breathing, Ventilation, Regulation of respiration, Transport of gases, Hypoxia, Artificial ventilation, Non respiratory functions of the lungs
●Immune system: Component organs of immune system, Functions of immune system; Endocrinology-Endocrine glands, hormones, their functions;
● Reproductive system: Anatomy of male and female reproductive systems
Diet and Nutrition
● Basic concepts and components of food and nutrition Understanding Nutrition, Basic Terminology in Relation to Nutrition Requirement, Human Nutritional Requirements; Concept of food, Acceptance of Food, Functions of Food; Components of Food & their Classification; Macro Nutrients –Sources, Functions and Effects on the Body; Micro Nutrients - Sources, Functions and Effects on the Body; Fat Soluble Nutrients - Sources, Functions and Effects on the Body; Water soluble Nutrients - Sources, Functions and Effects on the Body; Significance of Carbohydrate, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins, Minerals and water, Excessive and deficiency diseases of nutrients in the body; Antioxidants and their Role;
● Yogic concept of diet and its relevance in the management of lifestyle
● Nutrients, proximate principles of diet, balanced diet concept; Carbohydrates, proteins, fats – sources, nutritive values, importance; Minerals-calcium, iron, phosphorus etc. Vitamins – sources, roles, requirements
● Food groups.
Cereals & Millets –Selection, Preparation and Nutritive Value; Pulses, Nuts and Oil Seeds- Selection, Preparation and Nutritive Value; Milk and Milk Products- Selection, Preparation and Nutritive Value; Vegetables and Fruits- Selection, Preparation and Nutritive Value, Fats, Oils and Sugar, Jaggery, Honey, sprouts- Selection, Preparation and Nutritive Value
● Food and metabolism. Energy- Basic Concepts, Definition and Components of Energy Requirement, Energy Imbalance Concept of Metabolism, Anabolism, Catabolism, Calorie Requirement-BMR, SDA, Physical Activity; Metabolism of Carbohydrates, Lipids and Protein; Factors Affecting Energy; Requirement and Expenditure, Factors affecting BMR.
Yoga and Health
● Definition & Importance of Health According to WHO; Dimensions of Health: Physical, Mental, Social and Spiritual;
● Concepts of Trigunas, Pancha-mahabhutas, Pancha-prana and their role in Health and Healing; Concept of Pancha-koshas & Shat-chakra and their role in Health and Healing;
● Role of Yoga in preventive health care – Yoga as a way of life, Heyamdukhamanagatam; Potential causes of Ill-health: Tapatrayas and Kleshas, Physical and Physiological manifestation of Disease: Vyadhi, Alasya, Angamejayatva and Ssvasa-prashvasa.
● Mental and Emotional ill Health: Styana, Samshaya, Pramada, Avirati, Bhranti-darsana, Alabdha-bhumikatva, Anavasthitatva, Duhkha and Daurmanasya
● Yogic Diet - General Introduction of Ahara; Concept of Mitahara; Classification in Yogic diet according to traditional Yoga texts; Diet according to the body constitution (Prakriti) – Vata, Pitta and Kapha as also Gunas.
Concepts of Diet: Pathya and Apathya according to Gheranda Samhita, Hathapradeepikaand Bhagavad Gita; Importance of Yogic Diet in Yog Sadhana and its role in healthy living; Diet according to the body constitution ( Prakriti) – Vata, Pitta and Kapha as also Gunas.
● Yogic Principles of Healthy Living: Ahara, Vihara, Achara and Vichara; Role of Yogic Positive Attitudes (Maitri, Karuna, Mudita and Upeksha) for Healthy Living, Concept of Bhavas and Bhavanas with its relevance in Health and well-being
Therapeutic Yoga –
Yogic Practice - Management of the diseases through suitable yogic practices - Yogic diet, Yama and Niyama, Shatkarma, Asanas, Pranayama; Meditation; changes in lifestyle according to yogic scriptures.
Integrated Approach of Yoga therapy for the following Common Ailments:
Respiratory disorders - Allergic Rhinitis & Sinusitis: Chronic Bronchitis, Bronchial asthama
Cardiovascular disorders: Hypertension, Angina pectoris, Cardiac asthma:
● Endocrinal and Metabolic Disorder - Diabetes Mellitus, Hypo and Hyper- Thyroidism; Obesity: Metabolic Syndrome
● Obstetrics and Gynecological Disorders, Menstrual Disorders: Dysmenorrhea, Menopause and peri-menopausal syndrome: Yoga for Pregnancy and Childbirth, Ante-natal care, Post-natal care.
● Gastrointestinal Disorders: Gastritis, Indigestion, Peptic Ulcers, Constipation, Diarrhoea, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, colitis, Piles.
● Muscular-Skeletal Disorders: Back Pain, Intervertebral disc prolapse (IVDP) Lumbar Spondylosys, Cervical Spondylosis, , Arthritis
● Neurological Disorders: Migraine, Tension-headache, Epilepsy
● Psychiatric Disorders: Neurosis, Anxiety disorders, Phobias, Depression.
Applications of Yoga
Applied Philosophy: Yoga as Applied philosophy; Meaning, definition and nature of consciousness as described in Vedas,, Upanishads, Bhagwad Gita, Yogasutra and Yogavashishtha; Spiritual and scientific approach to human consciousness. Yogic Method of elevation of human consciousness: Bhaktiyoga, Jnanyoga, Karmayoga, Mantrayoga, Ashtangayoga, Hathayoga.
● Yoga in Education: Salient features of Yoga Education, Factors of Yoga Education; Teacher, Student and Teaching, Value based education- Meaning and definition, types of values.
●Teaching Methodology in Yoga: Teaching and Learning: Concepts and Relationship between the two; Principles of Teaching: Meaning and scope of Teaching methods and factors influencing them; Teaching techniques- Individual, group and mass
●Essentials of Good Lesson Plan: concepts, needs, planning of teaching Yoga (Shodhanakriya, Asana, Mudra, Pranayama & Meditation)
●Models of Lesson Plan; need for a lesson plan and content plan; Eight Step method of Introduction as developed in Kaivalyadhama.
●Evaluation methods of an ideal Yoga class; Methods of customizing Yoga class to meet individual needs. The student will have demonstrations and training in the above mentioned aspects of teaching methods.
●Yoga classroom: Essential features, Area, Sitting arrangement in Yoga class, Student’s approach to the teacher: Pranipaata; Pariprashna; Seva; (BG 4.34)
Yogic Practices – Shatkarma, Asana, Pranayama, Mudra, Bandha, Dhyana, Surya Namaskara (Techniques, Salient Features, Benefits)
●Shatkarmas: Vamandhauti, Vastradhauti, Dandadhauti, Laghoo and Poorna sankhaprakshalana, Neti (Sutra and Jala), Kapalbhati(Vaatkrama,Vyutakrama & Sheetkarma), Agnisara, Nauli, Tratak
● Suryanamaskar- Suryanamaskar must be practiced traditionally
●Asanas (yogic postures) Standing Postures-Ardhakatichakrasana, Padahastasana, Ardhachakrasana, Trikonasana, Parivrittatrikonasana, Parsvakonasana, Veerasana.
●Sitting postures-Paschimottanasana, Suptavajrasana, Ardhamatsyendrasana, Vakrasana, Baddhakonasana, Merudandasana, Akarnadhanurasana, Gomukhasana,
● Prone postures- Bhujangasana, Shalabhasana, Dhanurasana, Urdhvamukhosvanasana, Makarasana,
● Supine postures- Halasana, Chakrasana, Sarvangasana, Matsyasana, Shavasana, Setubandhasana,
● Balancing postures- Vrikshasana, Garudasana, Namaskarasana, Tittibhasana, Natrajasana
●Pranayama: Breath awareness, Sectional breathing, Nadishuddhi, Suryabhedan, , Ujjai , Sitali, Sitkari, Bhastrika, Bhramari, Bahyavritti, Abhyantarvritti, Stambhavritti Pranayama
●Practices leading to Meditation: Pranav and Soham Japa, Yoga Nidra, Antarmauna, Ajapa Jap, Practices leading to Breath Meditation, Practices leading to Om Meditation, Practices leading to Vipassana Meditation, Practices leading to Preksha Meditation
●Bandhas and Mudras: Mula Bandha, Jalandhara Bandha, Uddiyana Bandha, Maha Bandha, Yoga Mudra, Maha Mudra, Shanmukhi Mudra, Tadagi Mudra, VipareetKarni Mudra
● Contemporary Yogic Practices – Yogic Sukshma Vyayama (Swami Dheerandra Brahmchari), Cyclic Meditation (S-VYASA); Mind Sound Resonance Technique (S-VYASA); Transcendental Meditation (Maharshi Mahesh Yogi); Yoga Nidra (BSY); Savita Ki Dhyan Dharana (DSVV).