UGC NET SYLLABUS (Updated)
Subject: Tourism Administration and Management (Code No.: 93)
Unit – I:
Tourist/ visitor/ traveller/ excursionist – Definitions and Differences, Early and Medieval Period of Travel, Renaissance and its Effects on Tourism, Birth of Mass Tourism, Old and New Age Tourism, Forms of Tourism – Inbound, Outbound, National, International, Nature, Scope and Characteristics of Tourism. Need for Measurement of Tourism, Interdisciplinary Approaches, Different Tourism Systems- Leiper’s Geo-spatial Model, Mill-Morrison, Mathieson & Wall, Butler’s Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC) - Doxey’s Irridex Index – Demonstration Effect – Crompton’s Push and Pull Theory, Stanley Plog’s Model, Gunn’s Model
Meaning and Nature of Tourism Industry, Input and Output of Tourism Industry, Tourism Industry Network- Direct, Indirect and Support Services, Basic Components of Tourism -Transport- Accommodation- Facilities & Amenities, , Horizontal and Vertical Integration in Tourism Business, Tourism Business during Liberalization & Globalizations, Tourism Impacts: Economic Social, Cultural, and Environmental; Positive & Negative Impacts of Tourism, Factors affecting the future of tourism business; Seasonality & tourism, Sociology of tourism, Travel motivators.
Role and functions of Important Tourism Organizations in development and promotion of Tourism - UNWTO, IATA, ICAO, UFTAA, ASTA, PATA, WTTC, IHA, TAAI, IATO, FHRAI, ITDC, ICPB, State Tourism Development Corporations, Airport Authority of India, Archeological Survey of India, Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Railways , Civil Aviation of Government of India.
Unit – II:
Earth’s movement; Latitude, Longitude; Areas, Sub Areas and Sub Regions as per International Air Transport Organization (IATA), IATA Three Letter City Code, Two Letter Airlines and AirportCode, International Date Line, Time Zones, Greenwich Mean Time, Calculation of Local Time, Flying Time, Grounding Time, Elapsed Time, Daylight Saving Time.
World Geography - Climate & Vegetation of North, South and Central America – Europe – Africa - Asia & Australasia, Elements of weather and climate, Impact of weather and climate on tourist destinations, Climate and Vegetation of India, Physical Geography of India - Distribution of Rivers, Mountains, Plateaus & Plain area, Coastal area, Deccan, major lakes, deserts.
Tourists Movement - Demand and origin factors; destinations and resource factors; Contemporary trends in international tourists movements, Environment Act – Environment rules – Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Environmental Information System (EIS), Environmental Management System (EMS) & Carrying capacity, Forest Act – Forest Conservation Act – Wild life Protection Act,
Unit – III
Nature and Characteristic of Tourism Products of India - Seasonality and Diversities, Tourist attraction – Concept & Classification, Heritage – Indigenous; Colonial, Handicrafts of India; Fairs and Festivals of Social & Religious importance, Forms & Types of Performing Art, Classical Dances, Folk Dances of different Regions & Folk Culture, Indian Music - Different Schools, Status of Indian Vocal & Instrumental Music, Indian Music abroad, Indian Museums, Art Galleries, Libraries & their Location, Indian cuisine - Regional variations, Historical monuments of India – Ancient temples, caves, stupas, monasteries, forts, palaces, Islamic and colonial art and architecture, Indian rituals, dresses. World heritage sites of India, Major religious centers of India – holy places connected with Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Islamism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism and other religious sects, places associated with the work and life of legendry figures – Mahatma Gandhi, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, Swami Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore, Subash Chandra Bose & Sardar Vallabhai Patel. Important paces related to India’s freedom struggle.
Major National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and Biosphere reserves of India and their Locations - Accessibility, Facilities, Amenities, Uniqueness of Dachigam, Corbett, Ranthambore, Hazaribag, Similipal, Bhitarkanika, Kanha, Bandhavagarh, Mudumalli, Periyar, Gir, Sunderbans, Manas, Valley of flowers, Hill Stations - Locations, Accessibility, Facilities, Amenities, Uniqueness of Gulmarg, Kullu & Manali, Shimla, Mussorie, Nainital, Panchmarahi, Mahabaleswar, Chikmangulaur, Coorg, Munnar, Ooty, Kodiakanal, Arakku, Darjeeling, Gangtok, Shillong, etc., Tourist potential of Himalayas.
Beach Resorts of India - Locations, Accessibility, Facilities, Amenities, Uniqueness of important Beaches of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, Lakshadweep, Andaman & Nicobar Islands. Emerging attractions for Medical Tourism, Ecotourism, Rural Tourism, Agri Tourism, Farm Tourism, Green Tourism, Wilderness Tourism, Film Tourism, MICE tourism, Countryside Tourism, Caravan Tourism, Adventure tourism, Golf tourism, Light house tourism, Fort tourism, Buddhist tourism, Sufi tourism, Special interest tourism, Textile tourism, Aqua based tourism , wellness and spa tourism, culinary tourism, shopping tourism, indigenous tourism, industrial & Mining Tourism.
Unit – IV
Transportation - Evolution and importance of Transportation Systems; Role of Transportation in Tourism; Major transport systems – Rail, Road, Air and Water transport; Road Transport Network in North America, South America, Europe, South Africa, Asia and the Middle-East, Austria and New Zealand, Major Railway Transport Network in the World, Modes of transportations in India – Past & Present.
Licensing of air carriers; Limitations of weights and capacities; Scheduled and non-scheduled airlines services; No-frill airlines; Open sky policy; International conventions; Functions of IATA, ICAO, DGCA, AAI; GDS in air transportation. Types of air journey, MPM, TPM, Extra Mileage Allowance, One-way, Return Trip and Circle Tri Journey, Higher Intermediate Fare Check Point, Add-on and Open Jaw Fare, Excursion Fare , Components in International Air Tickets, Airline Business in the World, Major Air Carriers and Major Low-cost Airlines, Domestic Air Transport Business, Distribution of Sales of Airlines Tickets, Baggage and Travel Documents, Air Charter Services, Miscellaneous Charges order (MCO) - Multiple Purpose Document (MPD) - Billing and Settlement Plan.
Surface Transport System - Approved tourist transport, car hire companies including car rental scheme and tourist-coach companies, Documents connected with road transport viz. Regional Transport Authority, transport and insurance documents, road taxies, fitness certificate, contact carriage, state carriage, All India permits, maxi car, motor car etc. Railway System of world, British Rail, Euro Rail, Amtrak, Orient express, Trans-Siberian railway and luxury train of the world. Indian Railways - types of tours available in Indian Rail, Indrail pass, special schemes and packages available, palace on wheels, royal orient, fairy queen and toy trains. Planning itineraries on Indian Railways, reservation and cancellation procedures, Water Transport System - Historical past, cruise ships, ferries, hovercraft, river canal boats. Prospects and future growth of water transport in India. Major cruise lines of the world and their packages
Unit – V
Historical Background of Travel Trade, Significance of Travel Agency Business, Types of Travel Agent- Full Service Agency, Commercial Agency, Implant Agency, Group / Incentive Agency, Skills and Competencies for Running Travel Agency Business, Wholesale and Retail Agents, Future of Travel Wholesaling & Retailing. Types of Tour Operator- Inbound, Outbound , Domestic, Ground and Specialized, Types of Tour- Independent Tour, Escorted Tour, Hosted Tour, Incentivized Tour, Tour Wholesalers and Retailers, Diversified Role of Tour Operators, Distribution Networks of Tour Operation Business, Special Services for Charter Tour Operators, Meeting & Incentive Planners and Activities of Meeting Planners, Convention & Conference Tourism Business, Trade Fairs & Exhibitions, Essential Requirements for Starting Travel Agency & Tour Operation Business, Procedures for Obtaining Recognition, Travel Agency Organization Structure, Sources of Revenue, Use of Information Technology in Travel Agency Business.
Types of Itinerary - Resources and Steps for Itinerary Planning, Tour Costing: Tariffs, FIT & GIT, Confirmation of Tour, Creation of Docket/ File, Issue of Tour Vouchers, Reconfirmation with Airlines, Hotel & Ground Service Providers, Distributing Customized Itinerary to Tour Leader, Guide, Driver & Transporter, Standard Procedures for Pickup and Drop, Preparation of Feedback or Guest Comment Sheet, Analysis of Comments of Guest, Tour Guides & Escorts, WATA guidelines; Relation with service suppliers; Travel agency appointments; International regulations.
Familiarization with TIM (Travel Information Manual), Passport & VISA- Meaning, Types, Procedures, Validity, Necessary Information to fill the Passport and VISA Form for Issuance, Health Certificates, Currency, Travel Insurance, Credit & Debit Card, Customs, Currency, Baggage and Airport information, Citizenship – Passport - Visa - FEMA – Foreigners Registration Act – Customs – RBI guidelines - Criminal Law - Registration of cases, Cargo handling - Baggage allowance, free access baggage, Weigh and piece concept, Accountability of lost baggage, Dangerous goods, Cargo rates ad valuation charges Automation and airport procedures, Tour Brochures - element and importance of brochure.
Unit – VI
Distinctive characteristics of Hospitality Industry - Inflexibility, Intangibility, Perishability, fixed location, relatively large financial investment etc.; Concepts of Atithi Devo Bhavah; Hotel and the other lodging facilities; types of hotels and hotel departments; classification of hotels; chain operations; E- Hospitality. Types of accommodation; Activities in Accommodation Management – Front office – Housekeeping – Bar and Restaurant - Supporting services; Fiscal and non-fiscal incentives offered to hotel industry in India, ethical and regulatory aspects in a hotel, international hotel regulations.
Duties and responsibilities of front office staff; Reservation & registration- Types of Room, Types of Bedding, Meal plans, room assignments, check-in, methods of payment, type of hotel guests. Factors affecting the price of accommodation, important functions of Housekeeping Management, liaison with other departments, room supplies, Bed making and related types of service; Housekeeping department-Hierarchy, duties & responsibilities of housekeeping staff.
Food Production Organization, Kitchen, Buffets, Beverages Operation, Functions, Outlets of F & B, Types of Meal Plans, Types of Restaurant-Menu, Room Service, Catering Services-Food Service for the Airlines, Banquette, Corporate, MICE, Retail Food Market, Business/Industrial Food Service, Healthcare Food Service, club food services - Trends in lodging and food services. Food & Beverage Department of a hotel: Hierarchy, duties & responsibilities of staff.
Unit – VII
Concept of Goods & Services; Characteristics of Service; Salient features of Marketing Services: Services Marketing – Concept, Need & Significance, Types of Tourism Services, Tourism Marketing Environment, Strategic Planning and Marketing Process, Organizing and Implementing marketing in the Tourism Organization. Service Quality, Gap Model of Service Quality. Marketing Research. Market Segmentation - Targeting and positioning for competitive advantage; Relationship Marketing; Familiarization Trip.
P’s of Tourism Marketing- Product, Place, Price, Promotion, Physical Evidence, People, Process & Packaging, Designing Tourism Product – Branding and Packaging, Product Development – Product Life Cycle & Its Various Stages, Pricing Strategies and Approaches, Advertising – Sales Promotion – Publicity – Personal Selling, Tourism Distribution Channels, Cooperation and conflict Management. Global Marketing, Direct Marketing, Social Media & Digital Marketing, Green Marketing, Corporate Social Responsibility, Marketing Ethics & Consumerism.
Destination Image Development - Attributes of Destinations, Destination resource analysis, measurement of destination image - Destination branding perspectives and challenges- Creating the Unique Destination Proposition - Place branding and destination image - Destination image formation process; unstructured image -Product development and packaging - Institutional Support & Public Private Partnership in Destination Marketing.
Unit – VIII
Tourism planning - Role of Govt. public and private sectors in formulation of tourism policy; Roles of international, national, state and local tourism organizations in carrying out tourism policies. Tourism planning for thrust areas, special tourism areas & zones identified by Ministry of Tourism, Government of India. Sustainable tourism development, Pro-poor Tourism and Community Participation; Responsible tourism.
Tourism Policy - Factors influencing tourism policy; National Tourism Policy, Levels of Tourism planning - International, national, regional, state and local, the traditional, approach and PASLOP method of tourism planning; important feature of five year tourism plans in India; Elements Agents, Processes and typologies of tourism development; State tourism policies. National Planning Policies for Destination Development- WTO Guidelines for Planners - Role of urban civic bodies: Town planning -Characteristics of rural tourism planning.
Economic System and Its Impact on Tourism Development, Macro & Micro Economic System, Demand & Supply, Determinants , Measurement of Tourism Demand, Forecasting, Methods of Demand Forecasting, Inflation, Recession, Savings & Investment, Export & Import, Multiplier Effects &Its Types, Displacement Effect, Costs and Benefits of Tourism, Monetary Policy- Repo Rate, Reverse Repo Rate, Cash Reserve Ratio(CRR).
Unit – IX
Statistics: Measures of central tendency- mean, median, mode; measures of dispersion- range, standard deviation, variance, etc.; skewness and kurtosis; correlation and regression- scatter plots, lines of best fit, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients; Regression- bivariate and multivariate. Distributions- discrete and continuous; Normal distribution, sampling distribution. hypothesis testing – parametric vs. non-parametric tests, t-tests, ANOVA, Chi-square tests, run Test, sign tests, Wald- Walfowitz Test, Kursal Walis Test, Komogrov- Smirnov Test.
Research and theory, types and methods of research; review of literature; variables and measurement, concepts, constructs and formulation of hypothesis; Sampling, methods of data collection, development of schedules and questionnaires, scales and fieldwork. Qualitative research: quantitative vs. qualitative research; techniques- Grounded Theory, Ethnography, Case method of research, Content Analysis, Phenomenology, Narrative research, mixed methods.
Analysis, tools- Factor analysis, discriminant analysis, conjoint analysis, multiple regression, etc. Report writing, types of report.
Unit – X
Managerial processes, functions, skills, and roles in organization, Systems, contingency and operational approaches to management. External and internal environment affecting managerial decisions – social responsibilities of business – evolution of management thought; functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling.
Understanding & Managing Individual & Group Behaviour – Personality, Perception, Learning, Values & attitudes, persuasion, Theories of Motivation, Factors affecting group behaviour, group & individual dimensions, understanding work team, Communication, Leadership & influence process, Organization structure, centralization vs decentralization, strategy & structure, flat & tall structures, work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control and formalization, Common organizational designs - Simple, bureaucratic, matrix, virtual, boundary less, feminine – Organization as an open system & influence of environment over organizational dynamics with reference to technological innovations.
Basic Accounting Records and Books of Accounts, Double Entry System, Journal, Ledger, Trial Balance, Cash Book, Depreciation Accounting, Final Accounts with Adjustments. Hotel Accounting, Financial management, Concept of raising funds, capital structure, capital budgeting, Internal financial control- meaning, problems unique to hospitality industry, Establishing cost standard, Types of budget, preparation of budget, and zero based budgeting, working capital Management, cash management, Opportunities and challenges for investments in hotel, aviation & Tourism related sectors, Role of TFCI and other financial organizations. Elements of Contract Act – Breach of Contact – Performance of Contract – Indemnity & Guarantee – Bailment - Consumer Protection Act.